Volume 71, Issues 1-2,
, s. 69-80
The author link opens the overlay panel,
Sera from 40 domestic cats with varying degrees of periodontal disease were used to detect two recombinant functional proteases from cat strain VPB 3457Porphyromonas gingivalisexpressed inMI, Escherichia coliA recombinant protease (VPB 2856) was constructed.polymerase chain reactionand 91% DNA identityprtC collagenaseHuman strain genesPorphyromonas gingivaliswhile another protease (VPB 2814) was isolated from the selected sizebiblioteka genomowaand has an amino-terminal sequence with no significant identity to the deposited sequence. 13 of the 40 cats had serumantibody responseUse West VPB 2856Western blotdetection. All 13 cats had an overall periodontal grade of 3 or higher and greater than 1.68×105 colony-forming unit Porphyromonas gingivalisin canines and premolarsmouthAn example website. Fourteen of the 40 cats showed a serum antibody response to VPB 2814. Thirteen of these 14 cats had an overall periodontal grade of 3 or higher. Regression analysis of periodontitis general grade to serum antibody response showed that VPB 2856 and VPB 2856 (R2=0,351;P<0,001) i VPB 2814 (R2=0,247;P<0.001). Regression analysis of all colony-forming units of feline strainsP. gingivitisVPB 2856 (R2=0,662;P<0,001) i VPB 2814 (R2=0,531;P<0.001). These data strongly demonstrate that feline recombinant proteasesP. gingivitisexpressed inMI, Escherichia coliClones VPB 2856 and VPB 2814 are associated with periodontal disease in cats.
ThoughPorphyromonas gingivalis(PgH) is considered the main periodontal pathogen in the human oral cavity, and although research has focused on numerous proteases and their involvement in the development of destructive periodontal disease, the mechanisms of destruction of periodontal tissue components remain unclear. Recently, the cloning, sequencing and structural characterization of genes encoding some proteases, as well as more detailed analyzes of recombinant proteases, have begun to shed light on this important area of research.
Collagen is a major component of gingival tissue in humans and animals, and the reduced density of gingival collagen fibers (Page and Schroeder, 1973) is an important feature of adult periodontal disease in humans. The ability of PgH to specifically degrade collagen may confer a selective advantage over other oral flora. The collagenolytic activity of PgH may be the result of a combination of nonspecific proteases and true collagenases (Mayrand and Grenier, 1984). Lawson and Meyer (1992) purified an active 94 kDa precursor protease from strain PgH 1101, which was cleaved into 75 kDa, 56 kDa and 19 kDa forms. Protease cleavage of human type IV basement membrane collagen and synthetic collagen peptide substrate for eukaryotic collagenase. Bedi and Williams (1994) purified a 55 kDa protease from the medium of strain PgH 381 and found that it hydrolyzed acid-soluble collagen types I, III, IV and V in the human placenta and acid-soluble collagens in the rat tail. . The purified protease also hydrolyses complement component C3, fibrinogen, fibronectin, alpha1- Alpha antitrypsin2- Macroglobulin, apotransferrin and human serum albumin.
Takahashi et al. (1991) were the first to report cloning and expressionprtCgen zPorphyromonas gingivalisATCC 33277ItsKato et al. (1992) determined the nucleotide sequenceprtCAnd he deduced that its amino acid sequence corresponded to a 37.8 kDa protein. ThoughprtCThe gene product has no structural similarity to eukaryotic collagenases, is capable of degrading soluble and recombinant fibrillar type I collagen, thermally denatured type I collagen and azocol, but not synthetic collagenase substrates, and does not contain the consensus sequence of the HELGH peptide found in these enzymes. These features may reflect the unique properties of this collagenase or may question its status as a true collagenase. However, the inability of collagen hydrolytic enzymes to degrade native fibrous collagen does not rule out its involvement in the pathogenesis of destructive periodontal disease. The degradation of type IV collagen in the basement membrane may be important for subepithelial invasion (Papapanou et al., 1994; Lamont et al., 1995), while enzymes that degrade other nonfibrillar collagens may reduce tissue integrity or may act in conjunction with true bacterial or host collagenases.
Two cysteine proteases, designated gingipain-R and gingipain-K (Potempa et al., 1995), are involved in many of the damaging and evasive properties of PgH. These properties include disruption of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function (Kadowaki et al., 1994), degradation of acid-soluble collagen (types I and IV) (Kadowaki et al., 1994; Tokuda et al., 1998), immunoglobulin degradation of proteins and complement factors C3 and C5 (Kadowaki et al., 1994; Jagels et al., 1996) and may be involved in blood coagulation (Shah et al., 1992). Confusion about the function and identity of gingival proteases arose before DNA sequencing due to the many forms of proteases with different molecular weights (Pike et al., 1994, Potempa et al., 1995). Additional PgH proteases have stimulated research, including those produced byHiOtogoto i Kuramitsu, 1993tprGenes (Bourgeau et al., 1992). Both have been isolated, sequenced and characterized, but their role as virulence factors remains uncertain. They do not appear to share significant homology to each other or to gingivalysin.
Little is known about the proteases of the three characteristic felids of the genusporphyromonasLove and Binas (1995) showed that members of the cat familyPorphyromonas gingivalis(PGF),Porphyromonas salivariusIPorphyrodontoidyVarious SDS-stabilized proteases have been produced. The limited characterization of these proteases suggests that some of them may be cysteine proteases.
Three strategies to isolate, characterize and identify two of these proteases are described herein. First, a size-selected genomic library was constructed from PgF VPB 3457 (Love et al., 1987) and screened to identifyEscherichia coliClones containing homologous genomic sequencesprtCgen PgH ATCC 33277ItsSecond, the known DNA sequence of the collagenase gene,prtC, reported by Kato et al. (1992) for designing primers for the amplification of the homologous collagenase gene PgF VPB 3457. Third, immunological methods are used for identificationMI, Escherichia coliClones expressing potentially important recombinant PgF VPB 3457 proteins.
Collagenase gene primer design
Primers intended for amplificationprtCThe use of the PgF VPB 3457 gene with GenBank accession number M60404, which encodes the so-called collagenase PgH ATCC 33277ItsSense primer 5′-CGGAGCTATTTAACGGTGAAT-3' uses bases 45 to 63 while the antisense primer 5'-CCGAGAGGTGATAATTCG-3' uses the sequence from bases 1119 to 1103. The sense primer hasEnjoyThe dIII site (underlined) has been added to its 5' end to allow insertion of the gene in frame with the α peptide of the LacZ gene
Characterization of expressed recombinant proteins
Single-stranded DNA sequencing along 356 bases of the 1076 bp insert showed that 91% of the DNAprtCGen z PgH ATCC 33277ItsAnd confirmed the identity of the cloned product.
VPB 2856 expresses a recombinant protein with a molecular weight of approximately 37 kDa (Figure 1) - similar to the deduced amino acid sequenceprtCProduct genu PgH ATCC 33277Its(Kato i in., 1992).
N-terminal sequence of the recombinant protein in VPB 2856
N-terminal sequencing of a recombinant protein (PXLSYLT) confirms it is compatible withprtCi to
In this study, two genes from PgF VPB 3457 were used to clone and express functional protease activity. The strong positive correlation between serum antibody responses to these recombinant proteases and the amount of OPG and isolated PgF further underscores the importance of proteases in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. This study further demonstrates the pathogenic potential of PgF by meeting two criteria considered by Haffajee and Socransky
This work was partly funded by the Australian Research Council. The authors would like to thank Lana Patoka and Frank Taeker for the preparation of all culture media and Denise Wigney for professional assistance throughout the study. Thank you to the staff at Inner West and Annandale Veterinary Hospital for contacting me about this matter and the facility.
Purification and characterization of collagen-degrading protease from Porphyromonas gingivalis
J. Biology. Chemical.
Purification and characterization of a novel arginine-specific cysteine protease (argingipain) from the culture supernatant of Porphyromonas gingivalis involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease
J. Biology. Chemical.
- J.Keith Andersen
Multi-gel electroblotting: simple setup without buffer tank for fast protein transfer from polyacrylamide to nitrocellulose
J. Biochemistry. method
Chromosomal DNA probes for the identification of sugar-free anaerobic bacteria pigmented in the oral cavity of cats
Relationship between three species of Porphyromonas felis on the gingival margin of cats during health and periodontal disease
Lysine- and arginine-specific proteases from Porphyromonas gingivalis
J. Biology. Chemical.
Isolation and preliminary characterization of the prtC gene from Porphyromonas gingivalis showing collagenase activity
Microbiology FEMS. the wright
Amplification, storage and replication of libraries
Cloning, expression and sequence of the protease gene (tpr) zPorphyromonas gingivalisin W83Escherichia coli
Isolated expression and nucleotide sequence of the sod genePorphyromonas gingivalis
lis. I. microbiology.
Selected features of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strainsBacteroides gingivalis
J. Clinical. microbiology.
Microbial pathogens of destructive periodontal disease
periodontal disease. 2000
The protease that proteolytically inactivates the C5a leukocyte receptor is derived fromPorphyromonas gingivalis
Sequence analysis and characterizationPorphyromonas gingivalis prtCGene expressing novel collagenase activity
Structural protein cleavage during T4 bacteriophage head assembly
Functional study of the hp0169 gene in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori
2017, Pathogenesis of microbes
Excerpt from the quote:
Due to the prevalence in these genera, PrtC is generally classified as Porphyromonas, Salmonella and Helicobacter . Studies of PrtC types Porphyromonas and Salmonella have shown that they can cause damage to host tissues, thus facilitating the colonization of bacteria in the appropriate environment [13-16, 19-21]. To the best of our knowledge, Helicobacter-type PrtC (HpPrtC) has been relatively poorly studied.
Many virulence genes have been describedHelicobacter pyloridisease. However, the detailed mechanisms of many of them are not fully understood. In this study, we found that GenHP0169, encoding a putative collagenase (HpPrtC), involved inHelicobacter pyloriThe recombinant HpPrtC exhibits activity against native and thermally denatured collagen. This result suggests that HpPrtC may serve as a virulence factor that promotes bacterial colonization in the host stomach by degrading the surrounding collagen.HP0169Deletion by homologous recombination to study its function in bacterium-host interactions. Due to the pathogenic function of host cells,HP0169The mutant had no significant effect on the induction of apoptosis in GES-1 cells. However, the survival rate and proliferation rate of GES-1 cells infected with the mutant strain was higher than those infected with the wild-type strain. These results suggest that, in addition to collagenolytic activity, HpPrtC may be involved inHelicobacter pyloriPathogenesis via additional pathways. functional studyHP0169Participation in pathogenesis will provide insight into its pathogenesisHelicobacter pylori.
Comparison of two sampling methods for the microbiological assessment of feline periodontal disease
2011, Veterinary Microbiology
Excerpt from the quote:
In addition, the proportions of P. gulae and P. circumdentaria in the subgingival samples were also higher in the general flora. Previous studies evaluating the microbiology of feline periodontal disease have mainly used swabs (Booij-Vrieling et al., 2010; Norris and Love, 1999a,b, 2000a,b). In addition, Norris and Love (1999b) suggested the use of paper spots to limit the number of cats sampled to cats undergoing general anesthesia and those with more severe periodontal disease, noting that the swabbing strategy samples from the periodontal pockets and not just from the supragingival area.
Periodontal diseases in cats are very common, and their etiology is associated with bacteria found in the subgingival microbiome,porphyromonassp. The most common type. The traditional technique for collecting subgingival microflora is to use cotton swabs on the mucosa and teeth; however, bacterial regeneration can be improved by using subgingival paper spots.
The aim was to compare two microbial sampling methods to assess the microbial community associated with periodontal disease in cats.
The study was designed as a pilot study. Ten cats were clinically assessed and sampled while sedated. Subgingival specimens were collected from four sites. In parallel, samples were taken using cotton swabs by tapping the gingival margin and the surface of the right upper canine. Samples were cultured on blood agar (oxygen and anaerobic), Dentaid-1 (forAggregatibacteriaand enteric coated) and forBartonella henselae.
For total anaerobic counts, paper dot samples (6.59 ± 0.5) showed significantly higher counts (P=0.03) higher than swab samples (5.54±1.1). Additionally, the use of paper dots increases the frequency of detection of most pathogens, reducing the number of false negativesPorphyromonas pink(100% paper dot sample and 80% cotton swab sample).
When paper points were used for microbiological sampling of cats with periodontal disease, significantly higher recovery of anaerobic bacteria was observed and putative periodontal pathogens were detected more frequently.
Comparison of periodontal pathogens in cats and owners
2010, Veterinary Microbiology
periodontal pathogensPorphyromonas gingivalisIforsycja TannerellaIt is closely related to periodontal disease and is very common in people with periodontitis.
porphyromonasITannerellaThe genus has also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. Previous studies have compared the oral microbiomes of pets with those of humans, but there are no studies comparing the oral microbiomes of pets and their owners. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of these bacteria in the oral microbiome of cats and their owners, as the transmission of oral pathogens from animals to humans and vice versa can have public health implications.
This study investigatedPorphyromonas pink,Porphyromonas gingivalis, IforsythiaCulture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used in the oral microbiome of cats and their owners. Allporphyromonasfrom elevation (N=64) were positive for catalase whileporphyromonasisolated from the owner (N=7) was negative for catalase, indicating that the cat isolate wasP. AppetiteAnd these are from the ownersPorphyromonas gingivalis.forsythiaRecovery from two cats (N=63) and owner (N=31); ratioforsythiaCats with periodontitis had a higher relative total number of CFUs than cats without periodontitis. Genotypingforsythiainsulation(N=54) was shown in six cat/owner pairs and in one cat/owner pairforsythiainsulation(N=6) are the same. TheseforsythiaAll isolates were positive for catalase, leading us to hypothesize that there was cat-to-owner transmission and that cats are likely catalase reservoirsforsythia.
Cloning and expression of the superoxide dismutase gene from Porphyromonas gingivalis feline: immunological protein recognition in cats with periodontal disease
2002, Veterinary Microbiology
Recent evidence suggests that feline members of the genusporphyromonasSignificant effect on periodontal disease in cats. Several possible virulence factors from feline strainsPorphyromonas gingivalisthey have been described as having human likenessesPorphyromonas gingivalishuman and feline strainsPorphyromonas gingivalisIt produces superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that has been proposed as a regulator of inflammatory responses during infection. The aim of this study was to clone the feline superoxide dismutase gene.Porphyromonas gingivalisin order to compare the properties of their products with natural enzymes and to determine their immunoreactivity in cats with periodontal diseases. ThisturfVeterinary pathology and bacteriology genes of feline strain (VPB) 3457Porphyromonas gingivalisPCR amplified and cloned in-frame with the α-peptideZiżagenEscherichia coliin plasmid pUC19. The construct expresses SOD activityEscherichia coliIt has similar properties to natural SOD enzymesPorphyromonas gingivalisHuman strain 381 and parent feline strain VPB 3457. The recombinant SOD has an apparent molecular weight of 54,700 ± 1,300 (SEM) and is inactivated by 5 mM hydrogen peroxide but not by 2 mM KCN. There is a significant relationship (P=0.005) Feline immune reactivity is associated withPorphyromonas gingivalisSoluble whole cell protein VPB 3457 and its response to SOD protein on Western blot. This suggests that cats show significant seroreactivityPorphyromonas gingivalisreacts to the SOD enzyme itself and additionally supports the role of catsPorphyromonas gingivalisin periodontal diseases.
The bacterial warfare among cats: What do we learn from cat-bitten infections?
2000, Veterinary Microbiology
Cat bite infection is one of the most common infectious diseases found in veterinary clinics and human hospital emergency rooms. This review describes human and feline diseases, the origin of the organisms responsible for cat bite abscesses, and the importance of selected organisms such as members of this genusporphyromonasin sickness. Future directions, the importance of identifying important organisms, and why understanding antimicrobial susceptibility patterns have important implications for human and feline disease outcomes are also discussed.
2022, Journal of Animal Science
Human Calicivirus Typing Tool: An online genotyping tool for human norovirus and sapovirus sequences
Journal of Clinical Virology, tom 134, 2021, artykuł 104718
familyCaliciviridaeIt consists of a group of genetically diverse RNA viruses that infect a wide range of host species, including noroviruses and sapoviruses, which cause acute gastroenteritis in humans. The typing of these viruses relies on sequence-based methods, which requires fast and accurate online typing tools.
Development and evaluation of online tools for fast and accurate norovirus and saapporovirus genotyping.
The Human Calicivirus Typing (HuCaT) tool uses a selected set of reference sequences that are compared to the query sequence using a k-mer (DNA substring) based algorithm. The output contains the alignment and phylogenetic tree of the 12 best-fit reference sequences for each query.
The HuCaT tool was validated using a set of 1310 norovirus and 239 sapovirus sequences covering all known human norovirus and sapporovirus genotypes. The HuCaT tool assigns genotypes to all queries with 100% accuracy and is significantly faster than BLAST (150 seconds) or phylogenetic analysis methods (17 seconds).
The online tool HuCaT supports fast and accurate genotyping of human norovirus and sapovirus.
Microbiomes of dogs and cats - what do we know in 2017?
Clinical Veterinary Review, tom 52, numery 3-4, 2017, s. 93-98
The microbiome is defined as the microbial community of bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, protists and arthropods that live in and on our bodies. The new method, known as next-generation sequencing technology, has identified thousands of microbes, most of which cannot be cultured by traditional methods. Advanced bioinformatics tools are used for basic sequence processing, taxonomy assignment, diversity analysis and community comparison. The first studies of the veterinary skin microbiome have been published and the link between dysbiosis and atopic dermatitis in dogs has been recognized. This review summarizes key findings about the human and animal skin microbiome.
A sweet new role for protein glycosylation in prokaryotes
Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8, 2017, pages 662-672
Long thought to be a post-translational modification unique to eukaryotes, it is now clear that bacteria and archaea also perform protein glycosylation, the covalent attachment of monosaccharides and polysaccharides to specific protein targets. At the same time, many of the roles assigned to this protein processing event in eukaryotes, such as directing protein folding/quality control, intracellular trafficking, instructing cellular recognition events, etc., are not applicable or even applicable to prokaryotes. Thus, protein glycosylation must take on new functions in bacteria and archaea. Recent efforts have begun to elucidate some of these prokaryote-specific roles discussed in this review.
Characterization of antioxidant compounds extracted from Citrus reticulata cv. Coffee table using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, tom 192, 2021, artykuł 113683
citrusCV. The coffee table (CRC) has been widely used in many traditional Chinese medicine recipes and developed as various health products. Due to their wide range of biological activity, increasing interest has focused on CRC as a potential source of treatment for various diseases. However, until now there has been no systematic and relevant research on the optimization and characterization of the ultrasonic extraction of antioxidant compounds from CRC. In this study, the three parameters included ultrasound amplitude (45, 55, 70, 85, 95%), ultrasound time (26, 40, 60, 80, 94 minutes) and ethanol concentration (16, 30, 50, 70, 84%, v/v) was estimated using a central combination system. The specified optimal conditions, taking into account four reactions simultaneously (TPC, TFC, DPPH and ABTS), are 72% amplitude, 80 minutes and 70% ethanol concentration, respectively. The maximum yield is TPC value (145.73 mg GAE/g), TFC value (135.21 mg QE/g), DPPH and ABTS capture capacity (87.88 and 76.18 mg TE/g, respectively). The identification of 55 phytochemicals in CRC extracts by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS, of which 34 are flavonoids, provides important support for various potential applications of CRC.
Genetic characteristics of Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae serotype 61:k:1.5, isolated from a sheep abortion case, USA, 2020
Veterinary Research, tom 138, 2021, strony 125-136
Salmonella entericapodgatunkiArizonaSerotype 61:(k):1, 5, (7) (related to sheepS. diarizonae,SASd) is the most commonsalmonellaSerotypes identified in sheep flocks. Despite their involvement in animal and human infections, there is limited information on the virulence characteristics of SASds and their complement of antibiotic resistance genes, especially for those endemic to the United States. In this study, we genetically characterized three SASds, 20-265, 20-269 and 20-312, isolated from sheep placenta tissue during the 2020 abortion storm that affected a Connecticut sheep flock. SASds were the only bacteria isolated from the analyzed sheep tissue. These isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics, but all of these SASd isolates contained aminoglycoside resistance genes,aac(6′)-Iaa,and chromosome exchangeParkGen. The proportion of pseudogenes (5.3-5.5%) was similar among the isolates carrying the IncX1 type plasmid. Compared to SASds isolates from Enterobase, exceptSteC,iagB,IACP extension,Stamp,IsrpGen. In the SNP-based phylogenetic analysis, the SASd sequences were divided into groups AC and group C was further subdivided into subgroups C1-C6. These three isolates clustered with other SASd isolates from the United States and Canada in subgroup C6. SASd isolates from the same phylogenetic group tend to have similar geographic origins. Our findings do not provide conclusive evidence on which genetic traits make SASd virulent in sheep, but our data will provide the basis for comparative studies in this areasalmonellaserotype.
Estrogenic effects of trigonelline and 3,3-diindolylmethane on the growth of benign colon cells
Food and Chemical Toxicology, tom 87, 2016, strony 23-30
Epidemiological and animal data demonstrate a protective effect of estrogen signaling on colon carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, studies have shown that estrogen replacement therapy is positively associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Therefore, there is great interest in exploring new phytoestrogens that mimic the protective effects of estrogen in the colon. Trigonelline (Trig) and 3,3-diindolylmethane (DIM) have been described as phytoestrogens, although their chemical structure is different from other phytoestrogens. Both compounds elicit an estrogen response without directly interacting with the estrogen receptor (ER) binding domain. We examined the effect of Trig and DIM on benign colonocytes. Both compounds reduced cell growth in young adult mouse colon cells (YAMC). Trig and DIM induce cell cycle arrest in G0/G1Phase and enhanced apoptosis in YAMC. The inhibitory effect of Trig on cell growth was abolished by co-treatment with the ER antagonist ICI 182,780. DIM increases ER-mediated transcriptional activity. Both compounds uniquely altered the expression of genes related to apoptosis and cell proliferation. Taken together, Trig and DIM affect cellular physiology and YAMC gene expression through novel estrogenic actions, and these data suggest that intake of novel phytoestrogens may activate the protective effects of estrogen signaling in the colon.
Copyright © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
P. gingivalis and Streptococcus gordonii are able to interact to form communities and subsequent colonization of the dental plaque. P. gingivalis benefits from its interaction and coaggregation in the subgingival plaque for its destructive effects on periodontal tissues (Kuboniwa et al., 2017).How does Porphyromonas gingivalis cause periodontitis? ›
P . gingivalis is a gram-negative oral anaerobe and considered as a main etiological factor in periodontal diseases by producing a number of virulence factors and extracellular proteases such as lipopolysaccharide, fimbria, gingipain etc., resulting in destruction of periodontal tissues (7–11).How do you get rid of P. gingivalis? ›
Treatment procedures of P. gingivalis–mediated diseases such as periodontitis and peri-implantitis focus on the eradication of oral pathogens at the site of infection, usually by surface debridement procedures followed by adjunctive therapies, including the use of antiseptics or/and antibiotics [61–66].What is the shape and arrangement of Porphyromonas gingivalis? ›
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, obligate anaerobe that obtains its metabolic energy from protein breakdown products, heme, and vitamin K for its growth. It is a pathobiont of the oral cavity that is distributed among the human population worldwide.What are the proteases of P. gingivalis? ›
gingivalis, they have been suggested to play multiple roles in the pathogenic process of periodontitis. Indeed, P. gingivalis proteases hydrolyze a variety of serum and tissue proteins thus contributing to neutralize the immune defense system and to cause tissue destruction.What are the virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis? ›
Virulence factors of P. gingivalis are fimbriae, hemolysin, hemagglutinins, capsule, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and gingipains (Table 1). Fimbriae are thin, filamentous structures by most strains of P. gingivalis.What are the 2 main ways bacteria cause periodontal disease? ›
Causes. Bacteria in the mouth infect tissue surrounding the tooth, causing inflammation around the tooth leading to periodontal disease. When bacteria stay on the teeth long enough, they form a film called plaque, which eventually hardens to tartar, also called calculus.What can Porphyromonas gingivalis cause? ›
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe that is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease that destroys the tissues supporting the tooth, eventually leading to tooth loss.What is the primary cause of gingivitis and periodontal disease? ›
Overview. Periodontal (gum) disease is an infection of the tissues that hold your teeth in place. It's typically caused by poor brushing and flossing habits that allow plaque—a sticky film of bacteria—to build up on the teeth and harden.How can I get rid of gum disease permanently? ›
You will need to use small brushes (interproximal brushes) to clean in between your teeth daily, along with adopting good tooth brushing habits. Unfortunately, once you have gum disease, it's impossible to clean all the areas that are infected and you will need to go to a professional such as a hygienist or dentist.
There is a reliable test that can be done in any dental office to test for PG. It's called the Oral DNA test. It tests for the 11 different bacteria that cause periodontal disease, including PG.How does P. gingivalis enter the brain? ›
The keystone periodontal pathogen, P. gingivalis (P.g), can enter the bloodstream during episodes of transient bacteremia and gain access to the brain via multiple routes including a leaky blood-brain barrier.Where is P. gingivalis found in the body? ›
The major habitat of P. gingivalis is the subgingival sulcus of the human oral cavity. It relies on the fermentation of amino acids for energy production, a property required for its survival in deep periodontal pocket, where sugar availability is low (Bostanci and Belibasakis, 2012).What enzymes are secreted by P. gingivalis? ›
Arg-gingipain (Rgp) and lys-gingipain (Kgp) are endopeptidase enzymes secreted by P. gingivalis. These gingipains serve many functions for the organism, contributing to its survival and virulence.How is Porphyromonas gingivalis transmitted? ›
gingivalis into the oral cavity is thought to occur by transmission from infected individuals (77). Saliva is considered an important vector for transmission; however, the spouses and children of individuals with P. gingivalis do not always harbor the same genotype (203, 269).What are the 3 main proteases? ›
Proteases fall into four main mechanistic classes: serine, cysteine, aspartyl and metalloproteases.Is Porphyromonas gingivalis positive or negative? ›
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe that is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and is a member of more than 500 bacterial species that live in the oral cavity.What are 2 examples of protease? ›
|Protease Enzyme Name||Function|
|Pepsin||Present in stomach and converts proteins to smaller peptides – proteoses and peptones|
|Rennin||Secreted by chief cells of the stomach and curdles milk protein|
|Thrombin||Involved in blood coagulation|
|Plasmin||Involved in blood coagulation|
It can induce the dysfunction of endothelium, promote the formation of foam cells as well as the proliferation and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells, and lead to the imbalance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) cells, ultimately promoting the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis.What bacteria causes Porphyromonas gingivalis? ›
Porphyromonas gingivalis, the keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis, was identified in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Toxic proteases from the bacterium called gingipains were also identified in the brain of Alzheimer's patients, and levels correlated with tau and ubiquitin pathology.
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a key bacterium in chronic periodontitis, which is associated with several chronic inflammatory diseases. Lipopolysaccharides from P. gingivalis (Pg LPS) can activate multiple cell types via the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.What is 3 infection caused by bacteria getting under the gum tissue and destroying the gums and bone? ›
Periodontal disease occurs when the toxins found in plaque begin to irritate or inflame the gingiva (gum tissue). The resulting bacterial infection often known as gingivitis, can eventually lead to the destruction of the gum tissue and underlying bone.Can you reverse periodontal disease? ›
Periodontitis can't be reversed, only slowed down, while gingivitis can be reversed. This is why it's important to catch it in its early stages and prevent it from moving on to periodontitis.What are the two strains of bacteria found to assist with periodontal health? ›
Some oral strains of lactobacilli and streptococci  and bifidobacteria  have been reported to have in vitro inhibitory activity against periodontal pathogens, while others are more active against mutans streptococci.What chemical released by P. gingivalis has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease? ›
gingivalis increased the production of amyloid beta, a component of the amyloid plaques whose accumulation contributes to Alzheimer's.What is the relationship between Porphyromonas gingivalis and systemic disease? ›
P. gingivalis induce a chronic inflammation, this status could lead to infection, that is correlated with systemic diseases as diabetes, preterm birth, stroke, and CVD. P. gingivalis stimulate chronic inflammation and plaque accumulation and has a role on Toll-like receptors signaling.What is the mode of transmission of gingivalis? ›
gingivalis has been identified, and oral-oral contact is believed to be its mode of transmission.What are 3 causes of periodontal disease? ›
Poor oral health care habits. Smoking or chewing tobacco. Hormonal changes, such as those related to pregnancy or menopause.
This sticky, disgusting layer of film is called oral thrush, and it's normal to want to rid your mouth of the foul substance as quickly as possible! Read on to learn more from your dentist about what causes oral thrush, along with some measures you can take to address it and maintain good oral health.How can I rebuild my teeth and gums naturally? ›
- Use a Salt Water Rinse. Saltwater is a great, natural tool to use as an oral rinse. ...
- Drink Green Tea. ...
- Try Practicing Oil Pulling. ...
- Rinse with a Hydrogen Peroxide Solution. ...
- Maintain Thorough Oral Hygiene.
Use Corsodyl Complete Protection Toothpaste, which physically removes the build of plaque bacteria along the gum line, helping to keep the seal between your gums and teeth tight. When used to brush twice daily it is 4x more effective* than a regular toothpaste at removing the main cause of bleeding gums.What toothpaste works best for gingivitis? ›
- Colgate Total. ...
- Oral-B Gum Protection. ...
- Crest Gum Detoxify and Pro-Health Advanced. ...
- Meridol. ...
- Paradontax. ...
- Lacalut Aktiv. ...
- Zymbion Q10.
It's never too late to seek treatment for gum disease, and the degree of treatment you require will depend on how advanced it is.What is the function of the Porphyromonas? ›
Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is the most important pathogenic bacteria for periodontal disease. It can produce outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and release them into the environment, playing an important role in its pathogenesis.What is the mechanism of action of Porphyromonas gingivalis? ›
P. gingivalis LPS causes a highly innate immune response through host receptors, which is toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) and TLR-4 on the host cell surface, leading to secrete interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in host cells , , , .What is P. gingivalis and its role in systemic diseases? ›
P. gingivalis induce a chronic inflammation, this status could lead to infection, that is correlated with systemic diseases as diabetes, preterm birth, stroke, and CVD. P. gingivalis stimulate chronic inflammation and plaque accumulation and has a role on Toll-like receptors signaling.